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Luteální fáze: co to je a jaká je optimální délka?

13. prosinec 2013

U všech zdravých žen probíhají v těle procesy, které se stále opakují, a proto se dají vypozorovat. Rozdíl je v tom, co na nás jak působí, a jak dlouho to vše našemu tělu trvá. Ve chvíli, kdy začnete své tělo vnímat, můžete zjistit mnoho souvislostí. Například bolesti hlavy v období ovulace, změny nálad, bolesti zad a v podbřišku v určitém období. Nebo výtok či špinění se také může pravidelně opakovat. Co vše na sobě můžete pozorovat?


Luteální fáze: co to je a jaká je optimální délka?Luteální fáze: co to je a jaká je optimální délka?

Rozdělení cyklu

Menstruační cyklus ženy průměrně trvá 28 dní, a prvním dnem cyklu se počítá první den krvácení. Cyklus se dá rozdělit do čtyř fází:

Menstruace – trvá několik dní (2-7) a zahrnuje ztrátu krve 50-80 ml.

Folikulární fáze – Vlivem hormonu stimulujícího folikul začíná ve vaječníku růst několik folikulů obsahující vajíčka. Jen nejrozvinutější folikul se dále vyvíjí a růst ostatních se zastaví, proto v každém cyklu dozraje obvykle jen jedno vajíčko.

Ovulace – uvolnění zralého vajíčka z vaječníku. Vejcovod zachytí vajíčko a poskytne prostor pro oplodnění. Obvykle probíhá v polovině cyklu. Samotná ovulace trvá jen pár minut, ale plodné jsou přibližně tři dny před a den po ní.

Luteální fáze – po ovulaci se zbytek folikulu pomocí hormonů hypofýzy přemění do žlutého tělíska. Žluté tělísko bude příští 2 týdny produkovat k estrogenům i progesteron důležitý pro udržení embrya a podporu raného těhotenství.

Po oplodnění vajíčka rostoucí embryo putuje do děložní dutiny, kde se během týdne uhnízdí. To je signál pro žluté tělísko, aby pokračovalo v produkci progesteronu. Bez těhotenství žluté tělísko zaniká a hladiny estrogenů a progesteronu klesnou a připraví se na další cyklus. Snížení hladiny progesteronu vede ke spuštění krvácení.

Délka luteální fáze

Luteální fáze tedy trvá od ovulace do menstruace. Její délka bývá u jedné a té samé ženy + - konstantní. Neměla by být kratší než 10 dní a většinou nebývá delší než 16 dní.

Je dobré znát délku svojí luteální fáze. Zvlášť, když máte nepravidelný cyklus. Když zjistíte, že proběhla ovulace, jste schopná určit, kdy přijde menstruace. Pokud od ovulace uběhlo více dní, než obvykle u vás trvá luteální fáze, můžete si pomalu připravit těhotenský test.

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